Investigation of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns and blaVIM -metallo-β-lactamase Gene in Clinical Samples of Klebsiella pneumoniae


  • Asaad Alkhafaji Microbiology and microbial biotechnology department/ Faculty of Life Science and Technology/ Shahid Beheshti University
  • Neda Soleimani Microbiology and microbial biotechnology department/ Faculty of Life Science and Technology/ Shahid Beheshti University
  • Hind Mousa University of Thi-Qar/ College of science



Keywords:  K. pneumonia  , antibiotic r esistance, Vitek2 System


Multidrug resistance is a widespread issue that plays an important role in disease outcome. This study was designed to isolate Klebsiella pneumonia in different clinical specimens and detected their Antibiotic resistance profile. A total of 319 samples were collected from various clinical specimens for both genders and different ages. The samples were streaked on the blood and MacConkey agars.  The bacterial growth identified using biochemical tests and Vitek®2 systems to confirm it. Also, the Vitek®2 system was used to detect the antibiotic sensitivity. Out of 319 clinical samples, K. pneumonia was identified in 67 (21%) cases. The highest isolation rate was in urine 25(37.3%), followed by sputum 13(19.4%), and the least isolation was in CSF with one isolate (1.5%). The results revealed that K. pneumonia isolates were multi-drug resistant pathogens (MDR) with high resistance to Ampicillin (97%) and 85% for piperacillin.

The PCR results revealed blaVIM- genes frequency was 20 (30%). K. pneumonia is one of the bacteria that cause urinary tract infections, and it is a widespread multidrug-resistant pathogen, and blaVIM- producing K. pneumoniae are found in clinical samples at Thi-Qar hospitals. Therefore, monitoring the administration of antibiotics and their rational use is necessary to reduce antimicrobial resistance and treatment failure.



N. Dong, X. Yang, E. W.-C. Chan, R. Zhang, and S. Chen, "Klebsiella species: Taxonomy, hypervirulence and multidrug resistance," EBioMedicine, vol. 79, 2022.

J. A. Bengoechea and J. Sa Pessoa, "Klebsiella pneumoniae infection biology: living to counteract host defences," FEMS microbiology reviews, vol. 43, pp. 123-144, 2019.

M. K. Paczosa and J. Mecsas, "Klebsiella pneumoniae: going on the offense with a strong defense," Microbiology and molecular biology reviews, vol. 80, pp. 629-661, 2016.

P. Liu, A. Yang, B. Tang, Z. Wang, Z. Jian, Y. Liu, et al., "Molecular epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the type VI secretion system in Klebsiella pneumoniae causing abscesses," Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 14, p. 1181701, 2023.

T. J. Kochan, S. H. Nozick, R. L. Medernach, B. H. Cheung, S. W. Gatesy, M. Lebrun-Corbin, et al., "Genomic surveillance for multidrug-resistant or hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae among United States bloodstream isolates," BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 22, p. 603, 2022.

D. Chang, L. Sharma, C. S. Dela Cruz, and D. Zhang, "Clinical epidemiology, risk factors, and control strategies of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection," Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 12, p. 750662, 2021.

F. A. Owusu, N. Obeng-Nkrumah, E. Gyinae, S. Kodom, R. Tagoe, B. K. A. Tabi, et al., "Occurrence of Carbapenemases, Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases and AmpCs among Beta-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria from Clinical Sources in Accra, Ghana," Antibiotics, vol. 12, p. 1016, 2023.

T. R. Walsh, M. A. Toleman, L. Poirel, and P. Nordmann, "Metallo-β-lactamases: the quiet before the storm?," Clinical microbiology reviews, vol. 18, pp. 306-325, 2005.

The Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute CLSI . M100 33th Edition, 2023.

S. Basak, P. Singh, and M. Rajurkar, "Multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant bacteria: a study," Journal of pathogens, vol. 2016, 2016.

S. Yamamoto, A. Terai, K. Yuri, H. Kurazono, Y. Takeda, and O. Yoshida, "Detection of urovirulence factors in Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction," FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, vol. 12, pp. 85-90, 1995.

L. Poirel, T. R. Walsh, V. Cuvillier, and P. Nordmann, "Multiplex PCR for detection of acquired carbapenemase genes," Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, vol. 70, pp. 119-123, 2011.

E. A. Muhsin, L. A. Said, and S. S. Al-Jubori, "Correlation of type 1 and type 3 Fimbrial genes with the type of specimen and the antibiotic resistance profile of clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae in Baghdad," Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science, vol. 33, pp. 1-11, 2022.

A. B. Mohammed and K. A. Anwar, "Phenotypic and genotypic detection of extended spectrum beta lactamase enzyme in Klebsiella pneumoniae," PloS one, vol. 17, p. e0267221, 2022.

S. N. Aziz and M. F. Al Marjani, "Investigation of bacterial persistence and filaments formation in clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae," ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY, vol. 10, pp. 82-86, 2022.

F. A. Ali and R. M. Ismael, "Dissemination of Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella oxytoca Harboring bla TEM genes isolated from different clinical samples in Erbil City," Diyala Journal of Medicine, vol. 12, pp. 40-51, 2017.


F. M. Abbas and E. M. Jarallah, "First identification of NDM-1 Metallo ß–Lactamase among clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia isolates in Hilla hospitals, Iraq," Journal of Genetic and Environmental Resources Conservation, vol. 11, pp. 130-138, 2023.

N. A. Jwair, M. T. Al-Ouqaili, and F. Al-Marzooq, "Inverse Association between the Existence of CRISPR/Cas Systems with Antibiotic Resistance, Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase and Carbapenemase Production in Multidrug, Extensive Drug and Pandrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae," Antibiotics, vol. 12, p. 980, 2023.

A. Jafari-Sales, N. S. Al-Khafaji, H. O. Al-Dahmoshi, Z. Sadeghi Deylamdeh, S. Akrami, A. Shariat, et al., "Occurrence of some common carbapenemase genes in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected from clinical samples in Tabriz, northwestern Iran," BMC Research Notes, vol. 16, p. 311, 2023.

R. Alizadeh, M. Alipour, and F. Rezaee, "Prevalence of Metallo-β-Lactamase Genes in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Health Care Centers in Mazandaran Province," Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 8, pp. 130-134, 2021.

F. Luzzaro, J.-D. Docquier, C. Colinon, A. Endimiani, G. Lombardi, G. Amicosante, et al., "Emergence in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolates of the VIM-4 metallo-β-lactamase encoded by a conjugative plasmid," Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, vol. 48, pp. 648-650, 2004.

H. Jassim, Y. A. A. Alkhafaji, and H. R. Alkafaji, "The Prevalence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM Genes in Bacteria Isolated From Bladder Cancer Patients with Urinary Tract Infections," University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, vol. 10, 2023.








How to Cite

Investigation of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns and blaVIM -metallo-β-lactamase Gene in Clinical Samples of Klebsiella pneumoniae. (2023). University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, 10(2), 242-246.