The production bioethanol from Ceratophyllum demersum L . in Iraq


  • Dmoua kamil AL Zaidi Thi-Qar University, College of Science, Department of Chemistry
  • Husam Mohammed Kredy College of Science/ University of Thi-Qar



bio-ethanol, Ceratophyllum demersum, Biofuel


Biofuels have attracted a lot of attention due to the growing demand for energy resources and concerns about greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike other green energy resources, biofuels like bioethanol, can provide liquid fuels that is essential for transportation. Second-generation bioethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass through acid hydrolysis and fermentation. Lignocellulosic biomass is widely available and does not affect on the nutritional needs of agricultural crops. In this study, the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum was used. Ceratophyllum demersum is a type of invasive aquatic plant that can live in fresh and brackish waters, and it is abundant in most regions of southern Iraq. The bioethanol with the highest concentration was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that 14% of bioethanol was produced in the absence of acid hydrolysis, while the concentration of it increased to 25% with the presence of acid hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis aims to increase the breaking bonds of lignin and hemicellulose, increase the porosity of the material, and damage the crystalline structure of cellulose, and thus facilitates its conversion to glucose and increases the percentage of ethanol production.


S. Khan, M. Naushad, J. Iqbal, C. Bathula, and A. H. Al-Muhtaseb, “Challenges and perspectives on innovative technologies for biofuel production and sustainable environmental management,” Fuel, vol. 325, p. 124845,Oct.2022,doi:

Ch. M. S. Kumar et al., “Solar energy: A promising renewable source for meeting energy demand in Indian agriculture applications,” Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol. 55, p. 102905, Feb. 2023, doi:

S. Yi, K. Raza Abbasi, K. Hussain, A. Albaker, and R. Alvarado, “Environmental concerns in the United States: Can renewable energy, fossil fuel energy, and natural resources depletion help?,” Gondwana Research, vol. 117, pp. 41–55, May 2023, doi:

S. Fawzy, A. I. Osman, J. Doran, and D. W. Rooney, “Strategies for mitigation of climate change: a review,” Environmental Chemistry Letters, vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 2069–2094, Jul. 2020, doi:

I. Gelfand, S. K. Hamilton, A. N. Kravchenko, R. D. Jackson, K. D. Thelen, and G. P. Robertson, “Empirical Evidence for the Potential Climate Benefits of Decarbonizing Light Vehicle Transport in the U.S. with Bioenergy from Purpose-Grown Biomass with and without BECCS,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 2961–2974, Feb. 2020, doi:

S. Kim et al., “Carbon-Negative Biofuel Production,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 54, no. 17, pp. 10797–10807, Aug. 2020, doi:

F. Saladini, N. Patrizi, F. M. Pulselli, N. Marchettini, and S. Bastianoni, “Guidelines for emergy evaluation of first, second and third generation biofuels,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 66, pp. 221–227, Dec. 2016, doi:

H. A. Alalwan, A. H. Alminshid, and H. A. S. Aljaafari, “Promising evolution of biofuel generations. Subject review,” Renewable Energy Focus, vol. 28, pp. 127–139, Mar. 2019, doi:

P. T. Sekoai et al., “Application of nanoparticles in biofuels: An overview,” Fuel, vol. 237, pp. 380–397, Feb. 2019, doi:

Y. Kumar et al., “Nanomaterials: stimulants for biofuels and renewables, yield and energy optimization,” Materials Advances, vol. 2, no. 16, pp. 5318–5343, 2021, doi:

L. Hoa, M. Vestergaard, and E. Tamiya, “Carbon-Based Nanomaterials in Biomass-Based Fuel-Fed Fuel Cells,” Sensors, vol. 17, no. 11, p. 2587, Nov. 2017, doi:

R. Ruan et al., “Biofuels: Introduction,” Biofuels: Alternative Feedstocks and Conversion Processes for the Production of Liquid and Gaseous Biofuels, pp. 3–43, 2019, doi:

S. Amornraksa, I. Subsaipin, L. Simasatitkul, and S. Assabumrungrat, “Systematic design of separation process for bioethanol production from corn stover,” BMC Chemical Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, Oct. 2020, doi:

A. Wdowczyk and A. Szymańska-Pulikowska, “Micro- and Macroelements Content of Plants Used for Landfill Leachate Treatment Based on Phragmites australis and Ceratophyllum demersum,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 19, no. 10, p. 6035, May 2022, doi:

K. Whangchai, W. Inta, Y. Unpaprom, P. Bhuyar, D. Adoonsook, and R. Ramaraj, “Comparative analysis of fresh and dry free-floating aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes via chemical pretreatment for second-generation (2G) bioethanol production,” Bioresource Technology Reports, vol. 14, p. 100651, Jun. 2021, doi:

T. Kusolsongtawee, S. Chulalaksananukul, and L. Maneechot, “Bioethanol Production from Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Carbon Footprint Evaluation,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 103–108, 2018, Available:

F. A. Tamboli, H. N. More, S. S. Bhandugare, A. S. Patil , N. R. Jadhav, and S. G. Killedar, “Estimation of Total Carbohydrate content by Phenol Sulphuric acid Method from Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms,” Indian Journals, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 357–359, 2020, doi:

R. Gusain and S. Suthar, “Potential of aquatic weeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia sp.) in biofuel production,” Process Safety and Environmental Protection, vol. 109, pp. 233–241, Jul. 2017, doi:

Y. KC, A. Parajuli, B. B. Khatri, and L. D. Shiwakoti, “Phytochemicals and Quality of Green and Black Teas from Different Clones of Tea Plant,” Journal of Food Quality, vol. 2020, pp. 1–13, Jul. 2020, doi:

U. Okonkwo et al., “Investigation of the effect of temperature on the rate of drying moisture and cyanide contents of cassava chips using oven drying process,”, vol. 10, no. 2, 2019, doi:

I. Permei, “Pengaruh konsentrasi asam pada proses hidrolisis dan waktu fermentasi terhadap pembuatan bioetanol dari Gracilaria verrucosa,”, Jun. 22, 2022. (accessed May 10, 2023).

W. H. Kim, C. M. Hong, S. H. Jeon, and H. J. Shin, “High-yield production of biosugars from Gracilaria verrucosa by acid and enzymatic hydrolysis processes,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 196, pp. 634–641, Nov. 2015, doi:

S. Niju, M. Swathika, and M. Balajii, “Pretreatment of lignocellulosic sugarcane leaves and tops for bioethanol production,” Lignocellulosic Biomass to Liquid Biofuels, pp. 301–324, Jan. 2020, doi:

S. H. Mohd Azhar et al., “Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review,” Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 52–61, Jul. 2017, doi:

Y. Hong and Y. Wu, “Acidolysis as a biorefinery approach to producing advanced bioenergy from macroalgal biomass: A state-of-the-art review,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 318, pp. 124080–124080, Dec. 2020, doi:

J. fiedurek, M. skowronek, and A. gromada, “Selection and Adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisae to Increased Ethanol Tolerance and Production,” Polish Journal of Microbiology, vol. 60, no. 1, p. 5158, 2011.








How to Cite

The production bioethanol from Ceratophyllum demersum L . in Iraq. (2023). University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, 10(2), 49-52.