The Migraine and plant antioxidant: Review article


  • Mohanad Salam Majeed Al-Fayyadh University of Baghdad
  • Kefah H. Ismael College of Science/University of Baghdad.
  • Ali J.R.Al-Saady Biotechnology Dept./College of Science/University of Baghdad.



This manuscript interest in biotechnology and the first time research on relationship between migrain and plant antioxidant


Even though the pathophysiology of migraine has been the subject of many works, the precise molecular mechanism regarding the disturbances that underlie migraine remains unknown. Additionally, it is thought that oxidative stress contributes significantly to migraine development. For many years, the idea that migraine sufferers experience oxidative stress was addressed. The so-called nutraceutics, which include antioxidants, have received a lot of attention in the last few years among the substances which may be utilized to cure migraines. Antioxidants that are supplied with the food prevent the oxidative stress through suppressing the propagation, initiation, and actual oxidative chain reaction. The agents now being utilized to prevent migraines do in fact have certain antioxidative activity. Antioxidants that have been addressed in this research are growing more regularly utilized through the migraine sufferers not just because of low or even lack of side effects, yet as well due to their efficiency (shortening of an episode duration or reduced frequency of migraine episodes).


Tottene, A., Favero, M. and Pietrobon, M. (2019). Enhanced thalamocortical synaptic transmission and dysregulation of the excitatory?inhibitory balance at the thalamocortical feed?forward inhibitory microcircuit in a genetic mouse model of migraine. J Neurosci. 39, 9841–9851.

Burch, R.C., Buse, D.C. and Lipton, R.B. (2019). Migraine: epidemiology, burden, and comorbidity. Neurol Clin. 37, 631–649.

Stewart, W.F., Wood, C., Reed, M.L., Roy, J. and Lipton, R.B. (2008). Cumulative lifetime migraine incidence in women and men. Cephalgia.28, 1170–1178.

Viana, M., Sances, G., Linde, M., Nappi, G., Khaliq, F. and Goadsby, P.J. (2018). Tassorelli C. Prolonged migraine aura: new insights from a prospective diary?aided study. J Headache Pain.19, 77.

Asher, J.M., O’Hare, L. and Romei, V. (2018). Typical lateral interactions, but increased contrast sensitivity, in migraine?with?aura. Vision. 2, 7.

Allais, G., D’Andrea, G., Maggio, M. and Benedotto, C. (2013). The efficiacy of ginkgolide B in the acute treatment of migraine aura: an open preliminary trial. Neurol Sci. 34(suppl. 1), S161–S163.

Wolthausen, J., Sternberg, S., Gerloff, C. and May, A. (2009). Are cortical spreading depression and headache in migraine casually linked? Cephalgia. 29, 244–249.

Sutherland, H.G.,Albury, C.L. and Griffiths, L.R. (2019). Advances in genetics of migraine. J Headache Pain. 20, 72.

D’Andrea, G., Granella, F., Cataldini, M., Verdelli, F. and Balbi, T. (2001). GABA and glutamate in migraine. J Headache Pain. 2, S57–S60.

Puppe, A. and Limmroth, V. (2007). GABAergic drugs for the treatment of migraine. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 6, 247–250.

Colombo, B., Saraceno, L. and Comi, G. (2014). Riboflavin and migraine the bridge over troubled mitochondria. Neurol Sci. 35, 141–144.

Gross, E.C., Klement, R.J., Schenen, J., D’Agostino, D.P. and Fischer, D. (2019). Potential protective mechanisms of ketone bodies in migraine prevention. Nutrients. 11, 811.

Kasper, D.L., Fauci, A.S., Hauser, S.L., Longo, D.L., Jameson, J.L. and Loscalzo, J. (2018). migraine and other primary headache disorders. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 20/E (Vol1 & Vol2). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. Chapter 422.

Sacco, S., Braschinsky, M., Ducros, A., Lampl, C., Little, P. and Brink, A.M. (2020). European headache federation consensus on the definition of resistant and refractory migraine. J Headache Pain. 21:76.

Straube, A. and Andreou, A. (2019). Primary headaches during lifespan. J Headache Pain. 20:35.

Andreou, A.P, (2019). Edvinsson L. Mechanisms of migraine as a chronic evolutive condition. J Headache Pain. 20:117.

Leonardi, M. and Raggi, A. (2019). A narrative review on the burden of migraine: when the burden is the impact on people's life. J Headache Pain. 20:41.

Feigin, V.L., Nichols, E., Alam, T., Bannick, M.S., Beghi, E. and Blake, N. (2016). Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study. Lancet Neurol. 18:459–80.

Safiri, S., Pourfathi, H., Eagan, A., Mansournia, M.A., Khodayari, M.T. and Sullman, M.J.M. (2022). Global, regional, and national burden of migraine in 204 countries and territories, 1990 to 2019. PAIN. 163:e293–309.

Bonafede, M., Sapra, S., Shah, N., Tepper, S., Cappell, K. and Desai, P. (2018). Direct and indirect healthcare resource utilization and costs among migraine patients in the United States. Headache J Head Face Pain. 58:700–14.

Bernstein, C. and Burstein, R. (2012). Sensitization of the trigeminovascular pathway: perspective and implications to migraine pathophysiology. JCN. 8:89–99.

May, A. and Schulte, L.H. (2016). Chronic migraine: risk factors, mechanisms and treatment. Nat Rev Neurol. 12:455–64.

Olesen, J., Burstein, R., Ashina, M. and Tfelt-Hansen, P. (2009). Origin of pain in migraine: evidence for peripheral sensitization, Lancetneurology,8(7),679–90.

Magis, D., Jensen, R. and Schoenen, J.(2012). Neurostimulation therapies for primary headache disorders: present and future, Current opinionin neurology, 25 (3), 269–76.

Torres-Ferrús, M., Ursitti, F., Alpuente, A., Brunello, F., Chiappino, D. and de Vries T. (2020). From transformation to chronification of migraine: pathophysiological and clinical aspects. J Headache Pain. 21:42.

Viana, M., Sances, G., Linde, M., Nappi, G., Khaliq, F., Goadsby, P.J. and Tassorelli C. (2018). Prolonged migraine aura: new insights from a prospective diary?aided study. J Headache Pain. 19, 77.

Borkum, J.M. (2015). Migraine triggers and oxidative stress: a narrative review and synthesis. Headache. 56, 12–35.

Goschorska, M., Baranowska?Bosiacka, I.,Gutowska, I., Metryka, E., Skórka? Majewicz, M. and Chlubek, D. (2018). Potential role of fluoride in etiopathogenesis of the Alzheimer’s Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 19, 3956.

Aboonabi, A., Meyer, R.R. and Singh, I. (2019). The association between metabolic syndrome components and the development of atherosclerosis. J Hum Hypertens. 33, 844–855.

Tozzi?Ciancarelli, M.G., De Matteis, G., Di Massimo, C., Marini, C., Ciancarelli, I. and Carolei, A. (1997). Oxidative stress and platelet responsiveness in migraine. Cephalgia.17, 580–584.

Alp, R., Selek, S., Alp, S.I., Ta?kin, A. and Koçyi?it, A. (2010). Oxidative and antioxidative balance in patients with migraine. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 14, 877–882.

Geyik, S., Altunisik, E., Neyal, A.M. and Taysi, S. (2016). Oxidative stress and DNA damage in patients with migraine. J Headache Pain, 17, 10.

Yigit, M., Sogut, O., Tataroglu, Ö., Yamanoglu, A., Yigit, E., Güler, E.M., Ozer, O.F. and Kocyigit, A. (2018). Oxidative/antioxidative status, lymphocyte DNA damage, and urotensin?2 receptor level in patients in migraine attacks. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 14, 367–374.

Oterino, A., Valle, N,, Bravo, Y., Munoz, P. and Sander-Velasco, P. (2004). MTHFR T677 homozygosis influences the presence of aura in migraineurs. Cephalalgia. 24(6): 491– 4.

Al-Qasmi, M.M., Athanas, K., Dafer, R.M. and Tejen, G.E. (200). Von Willebrand factor is elevated in migraineurs with aura, transient ischemic attacks, and stroke: a retrospective analysis (abstr.). Neurology. 54: A405.

Cacciapuoti, F. (2012). Lowering homocysteine levels may prevent cardiovascular impairments? Possible therapeutic behaviors. Blood Coag. Fibrinol. 23: 677– 9.

Lipton, R.B. and Silberstein, S.D. (2015). Episodic and chronic migraine headache: breaking down barriers to optimal treatment and prevention. Headache. 55,103–122.

Diener, H.C. (2013). Headache: insight, understanding, treatment and patient management. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 178, 33–36.

Rajapakse, T. and Davenport, W.J. (2019). Phytomedicines in the treatment of migraine. CNS Drugs. 33, 399–415.

Orr, S.L. (2018). The evidence for the role of nutraceuticals in the menagement of pediatric migraine: a review. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 22, 37.

D’Onofrio, F., Raimo, S., Spitaleri, D., Casucci, G. and Bussone, G. (2017). Usefulness of nutraceuticals in migraine prophylaxis. Neurol Sci. 38, S117–S120.

Baiano, A. and del Nobile, M.A. (2015). Antioxidant compounds from vegetable matrices: Biosynthesis, occurrence, and extraction systems. Crit. Rev. Food Sci Nutr. 56, 2053–2068.

Ferroni, P., Barbanti, P., Della?Morte, D., Palmirotta, R., Jirillo, E. and Guadagni, F. (2018). Redox Mechanisms in Migraine: Novel Therapeutics and Dietary Interventions. Antioxid Redox Signal. 28, 1144–1183.

Chiaiese, P., Corrado, G., Minutolo, M., Barone, A. and Errico, A. (2019). Transcriptional Regulation of Ascorbic Acid During Fruit Ripening in Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Varieties with Low and High Antioxidants Content. Plants. 8, 206.

Yazar, H.O., Yazar, T., Aygun, A., Kaygisiz, S. and Kirbas, D. (2020). Evaluation of simple inflammatory blood parameters in patients with migraine. Ir J Med Sci. 189:677–83.

Erdener, S.E., Kaya, Z. and Dalkara, T. (2021). Parenchymal neuroinflammatory signaling and dural neurogenic inflammation in migraine. J Headache Pain. 22:138.

Xie, K.H., Liu, L.L., Su, C.Y., Huang, X.F., Wu, B.X. and Liu, R.N. (2020). Low antioxidant status of serum uric acid, bilirubin, albumin, and creatinine in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Front Neurol. 11:601695.

Alshkh, N., de Camargo, A.D. and Shahidi, F. (2015). Phenolics of selected lentil cultivars: Antioxidant activities and inhibition of low-density lipoprotein and DNA damage. J. Funct. Foods.18:1022–1038.

Abdel-Shafy, H. and Mansour, M.S.M. (2017). Polyphenols: Properties, occurrence, Content in food, and potential effects. In: Chandra R., Gurjar B.R., Govil J.N., editors. Environmental Science and Engineering. Studium Press LLC; Houston, TX, USA. pp. 232–261. Volume 6: Toxicology.

Single, R.K., Dubey, A.K., Garg, A., Sharma, R.K. and Fiorino M. (2019). Natural polyphenols: Chemical Classification, definition of classes, subcategories, and structure. J. AOAC Int.102:1397–1400.

Dirimanov, S. and Högger, P. (2019). Screening of inhibitory effects of polyphenols on Akt-phosphorylation in endothelial cells and determination of structure-activity features. Biomolecules. 9:219.

Chaliha, D.R., Vaccarezza, M., Takechi, R., Lam, V., Visser, E. and Drummond, P. (2020). A Paradoxical Vasodilatory Nutraceutical Intervention for Prevention and Attenuation of Migraine-A Hypothetical Review. Nutrients. 12(8).

Thorlund, K., Sun-Edelstein, C., Druyts, E., Kanters, S., Ebrahim, S. and Bhambri, R. (2016).. Risk of medication overuse headache across classes of treatments for acute migraine. The journal of headache and pain. 17(1):107.

Ashina, M., Buse, D.C., Ashina,H., Pozo-Rosich, P., Peres, M.F. and Lee, M.J. (2021). Migraine: integrated approaches to clinical management and emerging treatments. The Lancet.

Wlosinska, M., Nilsson, A.C., Hlebowicz, J., Malmsjö, M., Fakhro, M. and Lindstedt, S. (2019). Aged garlic extract preserves cutaneous microcirculation in patients with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases: a double? blinded placebo?controlled study. International wound journal. 16(6):1487-93.

Dunaway, S., Odin, R., Zhou, L., Ji, L., Zhang, Y. and Kadekaro, A.L. (2018). Natural antioxidants: Multiple mechanisms to protect skin from solar radiation. Front. Pharmacol. 9, 392.

Pinnell, S.R. (2003). Cutaneous photodamage, oxidative stress, and topical antioxidant protection. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 48, 1–22.

Oresajo, C., Pillai, S., Manco, M., Yatskayer, M. and McDaniel, D. (2012). Antioxidants and the skin: Understanding formulation and efficacy. Dermatol. Ther. 25, 252–259.

Rahimi, H.R., Nedaeinia, R., Sepehri Shamloo, A., Nikdoust, S. and Kazemi O. R. (2016). Novel delivery system for natural products: Nano-curcumin formulations. Avicenna J. Phytomed. 6, 383–398.

Bulboac?, A.E., Porfire, A.S., Tefas, L.R., Boarescu, P.M., Bolboac?, S.D.,St?nescu, I.C.,Bulboac?, A.C. and Dogaru, G. (2019). Liposomal curcumin is better than curcumin to alleviate complications in experimental diabetic mellitus. Molecules. 24, 846.

Maiti, K., Mukherjee, K., Gantait, A., Saha, B.P. and Mukherjee, P.K. (2007). Curcumin-phospholipid complex: Preparation, therapeutic evaluation and pharmacokinetic study in rats. Int. J. Pharm. 330, 155–163.

Shakeri, A., Panahi, Y., Johnston, T.P. and Sahebkar, A. (2019). Biological properties of metal complexes of curcumin. BioFactors. 45, 304–317.

Tabanelli, R., Brogi, S. and Calderone, V. (2021). Improving curcumin bioavailability: Current strategies and future perspectives. Pharmaceutics. 13, 1715.

Yallapu, M.M., Jaggi, M. and Chauhan, S.C. (2010). ?-Cyclodextrin-curcumin self-assembly enhances curcumin delivery in prostate cancer cells. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces. 79, 113–125.

Bulboac?, A.E., Bolboac?, S.D., St?nescu, I.C., Sfrângeu, C.A., Porfire, A., Tefas, L. and Bulboac?, A.C. (2018).The effect of intravenous administration of liposomal curcumin in addition to sumatriptan treatment in an experimental migraine model in rats. Int J Nanomedicine. 13, 3093–3103.

Bulboac?, A.E., Bolboac?, S.D., St?nescu, I.C., Sfrângeu, C.A. and Bulboac?, A.C. (2017). Preemptive Analgesic and Antioxidative Effect of Curcumin for Experimental Migraine. Biomed Res Int. 2017.

Abdolahi, M., Tafakhori, A., Togha, M., Okhovat, A.A., Siassi, F., Eshraghian, M.R., Sedighiyan, M., Djalali, M., Mohammadzadeh Honarvar, N. and Djalali, M. (2017). The synergistic effects of ??3 fatty acids and nano? curcumin supplementation on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?? gene expression and serum level in migraine patients. Immunogenetics. 69, 371–378.

Parohan, M., Sarraf, P., Javanbakht, M.H., Foroushani, A.R., Ranji?Burachaloo, S. and Djalali, M. (2019). The synergistic effects of nano?curcumin and coenzyme Q10 supplementation in migraine prophylaxis: a randomized, placebo?controlled, double?blind trial. Nutr Neurosci. 26, 1–10.

Liu, H.T., Cheng, S.B.,Huang, Y.C., Huang, Y.T. and Lin, P.T. (2017). Coenzyme Q10 and Oxidative Stress: Inflammation Status in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients after Surgery. Nutrients, 9, 29.

Mantle, D. and Hargreaves, I. (2019). Coenzyme Q10 and Degenerative Disorders Affecting Longevity: An Overview. Antioxidants, 8, 44.

Rajapakse, T. and Pringsheim, T. (2016). Nutraceuticals in migraine: a summary of existing guidelines for use. Headache, 56, 808–816.

Gaul, Ch., Diener, H.C.H. and Danesch, U. (2015). Improvement of migraine symptoms with a proprietary supplement containing riboflavin, magnesium and Q10: a randomized, placebo?controlled, double?blind, multicenter trial. J Headache Pain, 16, 32.

Schwedt, T.J. (2018). Preventive Therapy of Migraine. Continuum (Minneap Minn). Headache, 24,1052–1065.

Dahri, M., Tarighat?Esfajani, A., Asghari?Jafarabadi, M. and Hashemilar, M. (2019). Oral coenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with migraine effects on clinical features and inflammation markers. Nutr Neurosci, 22, 607–615.

Kim, M.S., Bang, J.H., Lee, J.; Han, J.S.,Baik, T.G. and Jeon, W.K. (2016). Ginkgo biloba L. extract protects against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion by modulating neuroinflammation and the cholinergic system. Phytomedicine, 23, 1356–1364.

Tulsulkar, J. and Shah, ZA. (2013). Ginkgo biloba prevents transient global ischemia?induced delayed hippocampal neuronal death through antioxidant and anti?inflammatory mechanism. Neurochem Int, 62, 189–197.

Choi, M.S., Kim, J.K., Kim, D.H. and Yoo, H.H. (2019). Effects of gut microbiota on the bioavailability of bioactive compounds from ginkgo leaf extracts. Metabolites, 9, 132.

Shi, C., Zhao, L., Zhu, B., Li, Q., Yew, D.T., Yao, Z. and Xu, J. (2009). Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) and its constituents quercetin and ginkgolide B against ??amyloid peptide?induced toxicity in SH?SY5Y cells. Chem Biol Interact, 115–123.

D’Andrea, G., Cevoli, S. and Cologno, D. (2014). Herbal therapy in migraine. Neurol Sci, 35 (Suppl 1), S135–S140.

Shah, Z.A., Nada, S.E. and Dore, S. (2011). Heme oxygenase 1, beneficial role in permnent ischemic stroke and in Ginkgo Biloba (EGB761) neuroprotection. Neuroscience, 180:248–255.

D’Andrea, G., Bussone. G., Allais, G., Aggugia, M., D’Onofrio, F., Maggio, M., Moschiano, F., Saracco, M.G.,Terzi, M.G., Petretta, V. and Benedetto, C. (2009). Efficiacy of ginkgolide B in the prophylaxis of migraine with aura. Neurol Sci, 30 (suppl 1), S121–S124.

Li, R., Chen, B., Wu, W., Bao, L., Li, J. and Qi, R. (2009). Ginkgolide B suppresses intercellular adhesion molecule?1 expression via blocking nuclear factor?kB activation in human vascular endothelial cells stimulated by oxidized low?density lipoprotein. J Pharmacol Sci, 110, 362–369.

Pareek, A., Suthar, M., Rathore, G.S. and Bansal, V. (2011). Feverfew (Tanacetum Parthenium L): a systematic review. Pharmacogn Rev, 5, 103–110.

Hwang, S.H., Kim, H.Y., Quispe, Y.N.G., Wang, Z., Zuo, G. and Lim, S.S. (2019). Aldose Reductase, Protein Glycation Inhibitory and Antioxidant of Peruvian Medicinal Plants: The Case of Tanacetum parthenium L. and Its Constituents. Molecules, 24, 2010.

Wu, C., Chen, F., Wang, X., Kim, H.J., He, G.Q., Haley?Zitlin, V. and Huang, G. (2006). Antioxidant constituents in feverfew (Tanacetu Parthenium) extract and their chromatographic quantification. Food Chem, 96, 220– 227.

Volta, G.D., Zavarise, P., Perego, L., Savi, L. and Pezzini A. (2019). Comparison of the Effect of Tanacethum Parthenium, 5?Hydroxy Tryptophan, and Magnesium (Aurastop) versus Magnesium Alone on Aura Phenomenon and Its Evolution. Pain Res Manag, 2019.doi: 10.1155/2019/6320163.




How to Cite

Al-Fayyadh, M. S. M., Kefah H. Ismael, & Ali J.R.Al-Saady. (2023). The Migraine and plant antioxidant: Review article. University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, 10(1).