Serological diagnosis of IL-1β and IL-6 associated with Urinary tract infections among pregnant women in Thi-Qar Governorate


  • Hussein Saleh Farhood MinistryofHealth,Thi-QarHealthDirectorate, Bint Al-Huda Hospital
  • Saad S. Hamim Department of Pathological Analysis, College of Science, University of Thi-Qar
  • Hamzah Shakir Institute forResearch in Molecular Medicine, University Sains Malaysia,Pulau Penang / Malaysia



Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are considered the most prevalent infectious disorders. They can affect the entire urinary tract or specific a portion of it and are mostly brought on by bacteria that are found in the intestine. The present study included 82 pregnant women whom age ranged from 17 to 40 (mean ± SD: 27.44 ± 6.66) and divided to 13 in the first trimester, 9 in the second, and 60 in the third. Also, the study included 56 apparently healthy pregnant women as a control, with age (mean ± SD: 27.11 ± 5.59). Patients with UTIs had lower mean serum levels of IL-6 (12.08 ±16.35 pg/ml) compared to control group (42.19 ± 28.0 pg/ml). Also, the same patients showed had lower mean serum levels of IL-1β (6.91 ± 11.78 pg/ml) compared to control group (43.32 ± 34.62 pg/ml). The conclusions, UTIs continues to be one the most socio-health problems that need a lot of care diagnosis and treatment. Both IL-6 and    IL-1β in UTIs pregnant women identification may contribute as Diagnostic marker tools for associated infections.  


A. R. Ahmed, and S. S. Hamim "Serological and Molecular detection of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from UTI patients." University of Thi-Qar Journal, 14(3), 64-79, 2019.

T. H. Abd Al-Amir, H. M. Mousa, “The Infections in Urinary Tract among Pregnant Women in Nasiriya City, Iraq: Bacterial Urinary Tract infections among Pregnant Women”, University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, 10 (1), 28, 2023.

M. Smieško, M. Mikov, P. V. Gusman, and P. M. Djanic, “Urinary tract infections and their importance,” Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Prirodne Nauke,136,173–181, 2019.

M. Srinath, M. Shajina, and O. M. F. Rahiman, “Etiology and prevalence of urinary tract infections among pregnant women in Kerala,” International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health/International Journall of Community Medicine and Public Health, 5 ( 8), 3298–3303, 2018.

Y.L.Naboka, A.N.Rymashevsky, O.M. Kogan , I.A. Gudima, N.V. Vorobyeva, and A.K. Alkina ,“Asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyelonephritis during pregnancy,” Medicinskij Vestnik Ûga Rossii, 12 (3) 22–31, 2021.

A. Al hamad, H. A. Khalil., R. S. Mohsin, and A. I. Khudhur, “Clinico-pathological study of urinary tract infection during pregnancy,” International Journal of Health Sciences, 2652–2656, 2022.

M. W. Beden and H. M. Mousa, “Bacteriuria with Unusual Uropathogens in Diabetics in Thi-Qar Province,” University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, 9(1), 43–48, 2022.

M. A. Al Kabe, and E. Th. N. Al-Fatlawy, “Breakthrough Host Defense: UTI in Pregnant Women in Comparison to Non-Pregnant,” in IntechOpen eBooks, 2022.

C. Serena, N. Tosi, F. Mecacci, and F. Petraglia, “Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in pregnancy,”, 2020.

A. Mukherjee and A. Mukherjee, “URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN PREGNANCY,” Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences, 7(39), 4313–4317, 2018.

P.V. Fincheira, F.S. Olivares, I.N.Soto, N.C. Arenas, F.H. Vargas, R. Troncoso, and L. Gabrielli,“Role of interleukin-6 in vascular health and disease,” Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 8, 2021.

G. Cavalli, S. Colafrancesco, G. Emmi, M. Imazio, G. Lopalco,M.C. Maggio, J. Sota, and C. A. Dinarello,“Interleukin 1α: a comprehensive review on the role of IL-1α in the pathogenesis and treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases,” Autoimmunity Reviews, 20(3), 102763, 2021.

I. Demirel, A. H. Persson, A. Brauner, E. Särndahl, R. L. Kruse, and K. Persson, “Activation of NLRP3 by uropathogenic Escherichia coli is associated with IL-1β release and regulation of antimicrobial properties in human neutrophils,” Scientific Reports,10(1), 1-12, 2020.

K. Oh, O. Y. Lee, Y. Park, M. W. Seo, and D. S. Lee, “IL-1β induces IL-6 production and increases invasiveness and estrogen-independent growth in a TG2-dependent manner in human breast cancer cells,” BMC Cancer, 16(1), 2-11, 2016.

J. M. Denney, E. L. Nelson, P. D. Wadhwa, T. Waters, L. Mathew, E. K. Chung, R. L. Goldenberg, and J. F. Culhane, “Longitudinal modulation of immune system cytokine profile during pregnancy,” Cytokine, 53(2), 170–177, 2011.

M. A. Rushood, A. Al‐Eisa, and R. Al‐Attiyah, “Serum and urine interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels do not differentiate acute pyelonephritis from lower urinary tract infections in children,” Journal of Inflammation Research, 13, 789–797, 2020.

É. Prairie, M. Tsakpinoglou, M. J. Mina, C. Quiniou, K. Leimert, D. M. Olson, and S. Chemtob, “The determinant role of IL-6 in the establishment of inflammation leading to spontaneous preterm birth,” Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, 59, 118–130, 2021.

P. Verma, R. Verma, R. R. Nair, S. Budhwar, A. Khanna, N. Agrawal, R. Sinha, R. Birendra, S. Rajender, and K. Singh, “Altered crosstalk of estradiol and progesterone with Myeloid‐derived suppressor cells and Th1/Th2 cytokines in early miscarriage is associated with early breakdown of maternal‐fetal tolerance,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 81(2), 2019.

A. Anness, A. Baldo, D. R. Webb, A. Khalil, T. G. Robinson, and H. Mousa, “Effect of metformin on biomarkers of placental- mediated disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Placenta, 107, 51–58, 2021.

O. Equils, C. Kellogg, J. A. McGregor, M. G. Gravett, G. Neal‐Perry, and C. Gabay, “The role of the IL-1 system in pregnancy and the use of IL-1 system markers to identify women at risk for pregnancy complications†,” Biology of Reproduction, 103(4), 684–694, 2020.

B. Abu-Raya, C. Michalski, M. Sadarangani, and P. M. Lavoie, “Maternal immunological adaptation during normal pregnancy,” Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 575197, 2020.

J. C. Owen, S. P. Garrick, B. Peterson, P. J. Berger, M. F. Nold, A. Sehgal, and C. A. Nold-Petry, “The role of interleukin-1 in perinatal inflammation and its impact on transitional circulation,” Frontiers in Pediatrics, 11, 1130013, 2023.

E. Bayar, P. R. Bennett, D. J. Chan, L. Sykes, and D. A. MacIntyre, “The pregnancy microbiome and preterm birth,” Seminars in Immunopathology, 42(4), 487–499, 2020.

S.H. Edam, and S.S. Hamim,“Seroprvalence of Transforming Growth Factor-β and some hormones on Male Infertility in Nasiriya City, Iraq” ." University of Thi-Qar Journal, 10(1), 150-153, 2023.

E. H. Essa, A.R. Hashim & S.S. Hamim "Kinetics of immune system in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome patients", Int. J. Bio. Pharm. All. Sci., 2(2),


E. A. Gatea, S.S. Hamim & K.M. Sabaa "Lead levels in milk samples of lactating mothers in Al-Muthanna Province in Iraq", MJPS, 2(1), 187-196, 2014.








How to Cite

Serological diagnosis of IL-1β and IL-6 associated with Urinary tract infections among pregnant women in Thi-Qar Governorate. (2024). University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, 11(1), 163-166.