Vitamin D Deficiency in Childhood: A Review


  • Hanan Saadon College of science/ University of Thi-Qar



Vitamin D deficiency, Childhood, Screening, Bone health, Supplements of vitamin D


Vitamin D is primarily obtained through sun exposure and diet, but factors like dark skin tone, limited time outside, and poor dietary habits can contribute to low levels of this essential vitamin. Getting enough Vitamin D is really important for kids' health, but a lot of them don't get enough because they don't spend enough time in the sun, don't eat well, or have trouble absorbing it. Not having enough can cause weaker bones, more infections, long-term illnesses, and problems with the immune system. To avoid this, children need to spend more time in the sun, eat foods rich in Vitamin D, and maybe take some supplements as well. In summary, this review highlights the importance of addressing vitamin D deficiency in children for their overall health and well-being.


Q. Niu, N. Ma, T. He, and F. Jiao, "Association of Vitamin D Deficiency and Child Growth and Development: A Retrospective Study of 0-12 Years Old."

Z. Zhu, J. Zhan, J. Shao, W. Chen, L. Chen, W. Li, et al., "High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among children aged 1 month to 16 years in Hangzhou, China," BMC public health, vol. 12, pp. 1-7, 2012.

C. Carlberg and F. Molnár, "Vitamin D receptor signaling and its therapeutic implications: Genome-wide and structural view," Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology, vol. 93, pp. 311-318, 2015.

G. Jones, "100 years of vitamin D: Historical aspects of vitamin D," Endocrine Connections, vol. 11, 2022.

S. Ahmed, C. Franey, H. McDevitt, L. Somerville, S. Butler, P. Galloway, et al., "Recent trends and clinical features of childhood vitamin D deficiency presenting to a children's hospital in Glasgow," Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 96, pp. 694-696, 2011.

M. F. Holick, "The D-lightful vitamin D for health," Journal of Medical Biochemistry, vol. 32, pp. 1-10, 2013.

S. við Streym, C. S. Højskov, U. K. Møller, L. Heickendorff, P. Vestergaard, L. Mosekilde, et al., "Vitamin D content in human breast milk: a 9-mo follow-up study," The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 103, pp. 107-114, 2016.

N. Charoenngam, D. Ayoub, and M. F. Holick, "Nutritional rickets and vitamin D deficiency: Consequences and strategies for treatment and prevention," Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 17, pp. 351-364, 2022.

A. Gates, T. Marin, G. D. Leo, and B. K. Stansfield, "Review of preterm human‐milk nutrient composition," Nutrition in Clinical Practice, vol. 36, pp. 1163-1172, 2021.

A. Vorosmarti, A. L. Yaktine, and K. Rasmussen, "Scanning for new evidence on the nutrient content of human milk: A process model for determining age-specific nutrient requirements," 2020.

N. I. f. C. Excellence, "Public Health Guidance 11: Improving the Nutrition of Pregnant and Breastfeeding Mothers and Children in Low-Income Households," ed: London: NICE, 2008.

J. Kuehnisch, E. Thiering, R. Heinrich-Weltzien, E. Hellwig, R. Hickel, and J. Heinrich, "Fluoride/vitamin D tablet supplementation in infants—Effects on dental health after 10 years," Clinical oral investigations, vol. 21, pp. 2283-2290, 2017.

L. Tripkovic, H. Lambert, K. Hart, C. P. Smith, G. Bucca, S. Penson, et al., "Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis," The American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 95, pp. 1357-1364, 2012.

S. Balasubramanian, K. Dhanalakshmi, and S. Amperayani, "Vitamin D deficiency in childhood—A review of current guidelines on diagnosis and management," Indian pediatrics, vol. 50, pp. 669-675, 2013.

A. W. Norman, "From vitamin D to hormone D: fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health," The American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 88, pp. 491S-499S, 2008.

N. Rochel and F. Molnár, "Structural aspects of Vitamin D endocrinology," Molecular and cellular endocrinology, vol. 453, pp. 22-35, 2017.

A. Hossein-Nezhad, A. Spira, and M. F. Holick, "Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial," PloS one, vol. 8, p. e58725, 2013.

Y. Zhang, D. Y. Leung, B. N. Richers, Y. Liu, L. K. Remigio, D. W. Riches, et al., "Vitamin D inhibits monocyte/macrophage proinflammatory cytokine production by targeting MAPK phosphatase-1," The Journal of Immunology, vol. 188, pp. 2127-2135, 2012.

T. K. Wöbke, B. L. Sorg, and D. Steinhilber, "Vitamin D in inflammatory diseases," Frontiers in physiology, vol. 5, p. 244, 2014.

J.-H. Chang, H.-R. Cha, D.-S. Lee, K. Y. Seo, and M.-N. Kweon, "1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits the differentiation and migration of TH17 cells to protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis," PloS one, vol. 5, p. e12925, 2010.

C. P. Kerley, B. Elnazir, J. Faul, and L. Cormican, "Vitamin D as an adjunctive therapy in asthma. Part 1: A review of potential mechanisms," Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics, vol. 32, pp. 60-74, 2015.

V. Morales-Tirado, D. G. Wichlan, T. E. Leimig, S. E. Street, K. A. Kasow, and J. M. Riberdy, "1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D3) catalyzes suppressive activity on human natural regulatory T cells, uniquely modulates cell cycle progression, and augments FOXP3," Clinical immunology, vol. 138, pp. 212-221, 2011.

G. Damera, H. Fogle, P. Lim, E. Goncharova, H. Zhao, A. Banerjee, et al., "Vitamin D inhibits growth of human airway smooth muscle cells through growth factor‐induced phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein and checkpoint kinase 1," British journal of pharmacology, vol. 158, pp. 1429-1441, 2009.

M. A. Underwood and C. L. Bevins, "Defensin-barbed innate immunity: clinical associations in the pediatric population," Pediatrics, vol. 125, pp. 1237-1247, 2010.

M. Di Rosa, M. Malaguarnera, F. Nicoletti, and L. Malaguarnera, "Vitamin D3: a helpful immuno‐modulator," Immunology, vol. 134, pp. 123-139, 2011.

A. Spiro and J. Buttriss, "Vitamin D: an overview of vitamin D status and intake in E urope," Nutrition bulletin, vol. 39, pp. 322-350, 2014.

A. Schmid and B. Walther, "Natural vitamin D content in animal products," Advances in nutrition, vol. 4, pp. 453-462, 2013.

M. Sahay and R. Sahay, "Rickets–vitamin D deficiency and dependency," Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism, vol. 16, pp. 164-176, 2012.

Y. Zhang, F. Fang, J. Tang, L. Jia, Y. Feng, P. Xu, et al., "Association between vitamin D supplementation and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis," Bmj, vol. 366, 2019.

A. G. Pittas, B. Dawson-Hughes, P. Sheehan, J. H. Ware, W. C. Knowler, V. R. Aroda, et al., "Vitamin D supplementation and prevention of type 2 diabetes," New England journal of medicine, vol. 381, pp. 520-530, 2019.

J. E. Manson, N. R. Cook, I.-M. Lee, W. Christen, S. S. Bassuk, S. Mora, et al., "Vitamin D supplements and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 380, pp. 33-44, 2019.

W. B. Grant and B. J. Boucher, "Why secondary analyses in vitamin d clinical trials are important and how to improve vitamin d clinical trial outcome analyses—a comment on “Extra-Skeletal Effects of Vitamin D, Nutrients 2019, 11, 1460”," Nutrients, vol. 11, p. 2182, 2019.

Q. Zhou, L. Li, Y. Chen, J. Zhang, L. Zhong, Z. Peng, et al., "Vitamin D supplementation could reduce the risk of acute cellular rejection and infection in vitamin D deficient liver allograft recipients," International Immunopharmacology, vol. 75, p. 105811, 2019.

M. Cariolou, M. A. Cupp, E. Evangelou, I. Tzoulaki, and A. J. Berlanga-Taylor, "Importance of vitamin D in acute and critically ill children with subgroup analyses of sepsis and respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis," BMJ open, vol. 9, p. e027666, 2019.

M. A. Abdel-Mohsen, A. A.-A. El-Braky, A. A. E.-R. Ghazal, and M. M. Shamseya, "Autophagy, apoptosis, vitamin D, and vitamin D receptor in hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus," Medicine, vol. 97, p. e0172, 2018.

M. Misra, D. Pacaud, A. Petryk, P. F. Collett-Solberg, M. Kappy, Drug, et al., "Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations," Pediatrics, vol. 122, pp. 398-417, 2008.

L. Barrea, L. Verde, W. B. Grant, E. Frias-Toral, G. Sarno, C. Vetrani, et al., "Vitamin D: a role also in long COVID-19?," Nutrients, vol. 14, p. 1625, 2022.

U. Werneke, F. Gaughran, and D. M. Taylor, "Vitamin D in the time of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic–a clinical review from a public health and public mental health perspective," Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, vol. 11, p. 20451253211027699, 2021.

R. T. Pinzon, Angela, and A. W. Pradana, "Vitamin D deficiency among patients with COVID-19: case series and recent literature review," Tropical Medicine and Health, vol. 48, pp. 1-7, 2020.

A. Fatemi, S. H. Ardehali, G. Eslamian, M. Noormohammadi, and S. Malek, "Association of vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 severity and mortality in Iranian people: a prospective observational study," Acute and Critical Care, vol. 36, p. 300, 2021.

A. Bassatne, M. Basbous, M. Chakhtoura, O. El Zein, M. Rahme, and G. E.-H. Fuleihan, "The link between COVID-19 and VItamin D (VIVID): A systematic review and meta-analysis," Metabolism, vol. 119, p. 154753, 2021.

R. Bouillon, C. Marcocci, G. Carmeliet, D. Bikle, J. H. White, B. Dawson-Hughes, et al., "Skeletal and extraskeletal actions of vitamin D: current evidence and outstanding questions," Endocrine reviews, vol. 40, pp. 1109-1151, 2019.

N. Ali, "Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression and severity," Journal of infection and public health, vol. 13, pp. 1373-1380, 2020.

A. Pignolo, S. Mastrilli, C. Davì, V. Arnao, P. Aridon, F. A. dos Santos Mendes, et al., "Vitamin D and Parkinson’s disease," Nutrients, vol. 14, p. 1220, 2022.

A. Muñoz and W. B. Grant, "Vitamin D and cancer: an historical overview of the epidemiology and mechanisms," Nutrients, vol. 14, p. 1448, 2022.

S.-Y. Na, K. B. Kim, Y. J. Lim, and H. J. Song, "Vitamin D and Colorectal Cancer: Current Perspectives and Future Directions," Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 27, p. 147, 2022.

A. Avenell, J. C. Mak, and D. L. O'Connell, "Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures in post‐menopausal women and older men," Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2014.

Ş. Hatun, B. Ozkan, and A. Bereket, "Vitamin D deficiency and prevention: Turkish experience," Acta Paediatrica, vol. 100, pp. 1195-1199, 2011.

M. A. Alonso, L. Mantecón, and F. Santos, "Vitamin D deficiency in children: a challenging diagnosis!," Pediatric research, vol. 85, pp. 596-601, 2019.

A. S. Türkmen and I. Kalkan, "Vitamin d deficiency in children: Health consequences and prevention," in Food Quality: Balancing Health and Disease, ed: Elsevier, 2018, pp. 471-492.

Y. Wang, H. Li, M. Zheng, Y. Wu, T. Zeng, J. Fu, et al., "Maternal vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes in the Chinese population: A prospective cohort study," PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0195700, 2018.

M. L. Martins, B. F. Arrepia, L. Jural, J. Vicente-Gomila, D. Masterson, L. C. Maia, et al., "Implications of Vitamin D Status for Children’s Bone Health: A Data Mining Analyses of Observational Studies," Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada, vol. 24, pp. e230054-e230054, 2024.

S. N. Karras, T. Koufakis, H. Fakhoury, and K. Kotsa, "Deconvoluting the biological roles of vitamin D-binding protein during pregnancy: a both clinical and theoretical challenge," Frontiers in endocrinology, vol. 9, p. 373103, 2018.

B. Badr, S. Cassim, and R. Rehman, "Can low Vitamin D Binding Protein levels be a cause of infertility in females?," 2019.

M. Fernando, S. J. Ellery, C. Marquina, S. Lim, N. Naderpoor, and A. Mousa, "Vitamin D-binding protein in pregnancy and reproductive health," Nutrients, vol. 12, p. 1489, 2020.

H. Hou, J. Zhang, D. Chen, F. Deng, A. Morse, X. Qiu, et al., "Altered decidual and placental catabolism of vitamin D may contribute to the aetiology of spontaneous miscarriage," Placenta, vol. 92, pp. 1-8, 2020.

H. Akhavizadegan and M. Karbakhsh, "Comparison of serum vitamin D between fertile and infertile men in a vitamin D deficient endemic area: a case-control study," Urologia Journal, vol. 84, pp. 218-220, 2017.

S. Ozkan, S. Jindal, K. Greenseid, J. Shu, G. Zeitlian, C. Hickmon, et al., "Replete vitamin D stores predict reproductive success following in vitro fertilization," Fertility and sterility, vol. 94, pp. 1314-1319, 2010.

S. Pilz, A. Zittermann, R. Obeid, A. Hahn, P. Pludowski, C. Trummer, et al., "The role of vitamin D in fertility and during pregnancy and lactation: a review of clinical data," International journal of environmental research and public health, vol. 15, p. 2241, 2018.

C. Palacios, M. A. Trak-Fellermeier, R. X. Martinez, L. Lopez-Perez, P. Lips, J. A. Salisi, et al., "Regimens of vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy," Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 2019, p. CD013446, 2019.

L. M. De‐Regil, C. Palacios, L. K. Lombardo, and J. P. Peña‐Rosas, "Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy," Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2016.

M. F. Holick, "A call to action: pregnant women in-deed require vitamin D supplementation for better health outcomes," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 104, pp. 13-15, 2019.

M. Rostami, F. R. Tehrani, M. Simbar, R. Bidhendi Yarandi, S. Minooee, B. W. Hollis, et al., "Effectiveness of prenatal vitamin D deficiency screening and treatment program: a stratified randomized field trial," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 103, pp. 2936-2948, 2018.

W. Dankers, E. M. Colin, J. P. Van Hamburg, and E. Lubberts, "Vitamin D in autoimmunity: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential," Frontiers in immunology, vol. 7, p. 236441, 2017.

Y.-F. Zhou, B.-A. Luo, and L.-L. Qin, "The association between vitamin D deficiency and community-acquired pneumonia: A meta-analysis of observational studies," Medicine, vol. 98, p. e17252, 2019.

P. Lips, K. D. Cashman, C. Lamberg-Allardt, H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari, B. Obermayer-Pietsch, M. L. Bianchi, et al., "Current vitamin D status in European and Middle East countries and strategies to prevent vitamin D deficiency: a position statement of the European Calcified Tissue Society," European journal of endocrinology, vol. 180, pp. P23-P54, 2019.

C. W. Tan, L. P. Ho, S. Kalimuddin, B. P. Z. Cherng, Y. E. Teh, S. Y. Thien, et al., "Cohort study to evaluate the effect of vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 in combination on progression to severe outcomes in older patients with coronavirus (COVID-19)," Nutrition, vol. 79, p. 111017, 2020.

S. Priya, A. Singh, A. Pradhan, D. Himanshu, A. Agarwal, and S. Mehrotra, "Association of Vitamin D and essential hypertension in a North Indian population cohort," Heart India, vol. 5, pp. 7-11, 2017.

M. S. Allai, Z. A. Shah, K. H. Changal, M. A. Raina, and F. A. Bhat, "Association of low levels of vitamin D with chronic stable angina: A prospective case-control study," North American journal of medical sciences, vol. 8, p. 143, 2016.

S. S. Mahmood, D. Levy, R. S. Vasan, and T. J. Wang, "The Framingham Heart Study and the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease: a historical perspective," The lancet, vol. 383, pp. 999-1008, 2014.

M. A. Zmijewski, "Vitamin D and human health," vol. 20, ed: MDPI, 2019, p. 145.

J. Burton, S. Kimball, R. Vieth, A. Bar-Or, H.-M. Dosch, R. Cheung, et al., "A phase I/II dose-escalation trial of vitamin D3 and calcium in multiple sclerosis," Neurology, vol. 74, pp. 1852-1859, 2010.

J. Lin, J. Liu, M. L. Davies, and W. Chen, "Serum vitamin D level and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: review and meta-analysis," PloS one, vol. 11, p. e0146351, 2016.

M. de La Puente-Yagüe, M. A. Cuadrado-Cenzual, M. J. Ciudad-Cabañas, M. Hernández-Cabria, and L. Collado-Yurrita, "Vitamin D: And its role in breast cancer," The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences, vol. 34, pp. 423-427, 2018.

C. Yuan, K. Sato, B. W. Hollis, S. Zhang, D. Niedzwiecki, F.-S. Ou, et al., "Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and survival in patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer: findings from CALGB/SWOG 80405 (Alliance)," Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 25, pp. 7497-7505, 2019.

N. T. Minh and H. N. Y. Nhi, "'Vitamin D intake and gastric cancer in Viet Nam: a case-control study'," 2022.

J. Huang, W. C. Chan, C. H. Ngai, V. Lok, L. Zhang, D. E. Lucero-Prisno III, et al., "Worldwide burden, risk factors, and temporal trends of ovarian cancer: a global study," Cancers, vol. 14, p. 2230, 2022.

S. Jung, S. Jin, and Y. Je, "Vitamin D intake, blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and risk of ovarian cancer: A meta-analysis of observational studies," Journal of Women's Health, vol. 32, pp. 561-573, 2023.

D. Lin, M. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Gong, L. Chen, X. Shi, et al., "Trends in intracranial glioma incidence and mortality in the United States, 1975-2018," Frontiers in oncology, vol. 11, p. 748061, 2021.

Y. Ma, L. Deng, Y. Huangfu, Y. Zhou, P. Wang, and L. Shen, "Adequate vitamin D level associated with reduced risk of sporadic colorectal cancer," Frontiers in Nutrition, vol. 10, p. 1024849, 2023.

M. Quigley, S. Rieger, E. Capobianco, Z. Wang, H. Zhao, M. Hewison, et al., "Vitamin D modulation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and mTOR enforces stress adaptations and anticancer responses," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Plus, vol. 6, p. e10572, 2022.

C. Chen, L. Xie, T. Ren, Y. Huang, J. Xu, and W. Guo, "Immunotherapy for osteosarcoma: Fundamental mechanism, rationale, and recent breakthroughs," Cancer letters, vol. 500, pp. 1-10, 2021.

C.-C. Wu, H. C. Beird, J. Andrew Livingston, S. Advani, A. Mitra, S. Cao, et al., "Immuno-genomic landscape of osteosarcoma," Nature communications, vol. 11, p. 1008, 2020.

A. Pierce, S. Singh, J. Lee, C. Grant, V. Cruz de Jesus, and R. J. Schroth, "The burden of early childhood caries in Canadian children and associated risk factors," Frontiers in public health, vol. 7, p. 328, 2019.

R. Singleton, G. Day, T. Thomas, R. Schroth, J. Klejka, D. Lenaker, et al., "Association of maternal vitamin D deficiency with early childhood caries," Journal of dental research, vol. 98, pp. 549-555, 2019.

K. Tanaka, S. Hitsumoto, Y. Miyake, H. Okubo, S. Sasaki, N. Miyatake, et al., "Higher vitamin D intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of dental caries in young Japanese children," Annals of epidemiology, vol. 25, pp. 620-625, 2015.

P. E. Nørrisgaard, D. Haubek, J. Kühnisch, B. L. Chawes, J. Stokholm, K. Bønnelykke, et al., "Association of high-dose vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy with the risk of enamel defects in offspring: a 6-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial," JAMA pediatrics, vol. 173, pp. 924-930, 2019.

J. Kühnisch, E. Thiering, J. Kratzsch, R. Heinrich-Weltzien, R. Hickel, J. Heinrich, et al., "Elevated serum 25 (OH)-vitamin D levels are negatively correlated with molar-incisor hypomineralization," Journal of dental research, vol. 94, pp. 381-387, 2015.

T. Durá-Travé and F. Gallinas-Victoriano, "Dental caries in children and vitamin D deficiency: a narrative review," European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 183, pp. 523-528, 2024.

E. Öğüş, H. Sürer, A. Ş. Kılınç, V. Fidancı, G. Yılmaz, N. Dindar, et al., "Evaluation of vitamin D levels by months, sex and age," Ankara Medical Journal, vol. 15, 2015.

Y. Guzman-Prado, O. Samson, J. P. Segal, J. K. Limdi, and B. H. Hayee, "Vitamin D therapy in adults with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis," Inflammatory bowel diseases, vol. 26, pp. 1819-1830, 2020.

C. A. Lamb, N. A. Kennedy, T. Raine, P. A. Hendy, P. J. Smith, J. K. Limdi, et al., "British Society of Gastroenterology consensus guidelines on the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults," Gut, vol. 68, pp. s1-s106, 2019.

Y. Nguyen, J. Sigaux, J.-G. Letarouilly, P. Sanchez, S. Czernichow, R.-M. Flipo, et al., "Efficacy of oral vitamin supplementation in inflammatory rheumatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials," Nutrients, vol. 13, p. 107, 2020.

D. Haffner and M. Leifheit-Nestler, "Treatment of hyperphosphatemia: the dangers of aiming for normal PTH levels," Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 35, pp. 485-491, 2020.

E. Kechichian and K. Ezzedine, "Vitamin D and the skin: an update for dermatologists," American journal of clinical dermatology, vol. 19, pp. 223-235, 2018.

A. Saalbach and M. Kunz, "Impact of Chronic Inflammation in Psoriasis on Bone Metabolism," Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 13, p. 925503, 2022.

C. F. Munns, N. Shaw, M. Kiely, B. L. Specker, T. D. Thacher, K. Ozono, et al., "Global consensus recommendations on prevention and management of nutritional rickets," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 101, pp. 394-415, 2016.

P. R. Britto, S. J. Lye, K. Proulx, A. K. Yousafzai, S. G. Matthews, T. Vaivada, et al., "Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development," The lancet, vol. 389, pp. 91-102, 2017.

A. Seth, P. Kumar, and A. Jain, "Prevalence and management of vitamin D deficiency in children with newly diagnosed coeliac disease: cohort study," Paediatrics and International Child Health, vol. 41, pp. 247-252, 2021.

E. Bezuglov, A. Tikhonova, A. Zueva, V. Khaitin, Z. Waśkiewicz, D. Gerasimuk, et al., "Prevalence and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in young male Russian soccer players in winter," Nutrients, vol. 11, p. 2405, 2019.








How to Cite

Vitamin D Deficiency in Childhood: A Review. (2024). University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, 11(1), 176-184.