Screening and Isolation of Protease Producing Bacteria from Diabetic Foot Ulcers


  • Sarah Ghalib Khudhur Dept. of Path. Analysis, College of Science, University of Thi- Qar,Iraq
  • Hanan Saadon Dept. of Path. Analysis, College of Science, University of Thi- Qar,Iraq
  • Aya Talib jawad Dept. of Path. Analysis, College of Science, University of Thi- Qar,Iraq
  • Assala Jebur Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Thi- Qar,Iraq
  • Abbas Abd Ali Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Thi- Qar,Iraq
  • Farah Al-Ali University Hospitals Birmingham ,Heartlands Hospital - UK



Diabetes foot ulcer infections, Protease enzyme


This study was conducted to detect bacterial causative pathogens in patients with diabetes foot ulcer infections and determine the protease enzyme. Samples were collected from 75 swabs were collected from patients suffering from diabetic foot ulcers referred to The Diabetic Center /Thi-Qar province. Data collected from patients included: age, gender and Period of infection. The results revealed that positive bacterial growth appeared in 54 (72 %) of diabetic foot ulcer specimen, and the most common isolates were Enterobacter cloaca 15(27.77%), followed by proteus mirabilis 12 (22.22%), Staphylococcus aureus 10 (18.51%), Escherichia coli 8 (14.81%), for each one Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogens 3(0.84%). The results of the Protease enzyme test were performed for all 54 isolates to determine the variable ability of these bacterial species isolated from didactic foot ulcers to produce this enzyme. The highest percentage production protease enzyme was 100 % for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and 76.92% for proteus mirabilis, while the isolates showed a low production of 20.0 % for Enterobacter cloaca.


Z. Punthakee, R. Goldenberg, and P. Katz, "Definition, classification and diagnosis of diabetes, prediabetes and metabolic syndrome," Canadian journal of diabetes, vol. 42, pp. S10-S15, 2018.

M. M. AL-Sahi, M. M. Ali, and S. M. J. AL-Hasnawi, "Microbiological Detection of Some Pathogenic Bacteria in Diabetic Foot Ulcers of Type 1 and 2 Diabetic Mellitus Patients," University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, vol. 10, 2023.

F. Sadeghpour Heravi, M. Zakrzewski, K. Vickery, D. G. Armstrong, and H. Hu, "Bacterial diversity of diabetic foot ulcers: current status and future prospectives," Journal of ClinicalMedicine, vol. 8, p. 1935, 2019.

T. C. Goh, M. Y. Bajuri, S. C. Nadarajah, A. H. Abdul Rashid, S. Baharuddin, and K. S. Zamri, "Clinical and bacteriological profile of diabetic foot infections in a tertiary care," Journal of foot and ankle research, vol. 13, pp. 1-8, 2020.

O. L. Tavano, A. Berenguer‐Murcia, F. Secundo, and R. Fernandez‐Lafuente, "Biotechnological applications of proteases in food technology," Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety, vol. 17, pp. 412-436, 2018.

P. Palsaniya, R. Mishra, N. Beejawat, S. Sethi, and B. L. Gupta, "Optimization of alkaline protease production from bacteria isolated from soil," Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, vol. 2, pp. 858-865, 2012.

A. Burhan, U. Nisa, C. Gökhan, C. Ömer, A. Ashabil, and G. Osman, "Enzymatic properties of a novel thermostable, thermophilic, alkaline and chelator resistant amylase from an alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. isolate ANT-6," Process Biochemistry, vol. 38, pp. 1397-1403, 2003.

R. Gupta, Q. Beg, and P. Lorenz, "Bacterial alkaline proteases: molecular approaches and industrial applications," Applied microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 59, pp. 15-32, 2002.

R. Tolouian, D. Wild, M. H. Lashkari, and I. Najafi, "Oral alkalinizing solution as a potential prophylaxis against myoglobinuric acute renal failure: preliminary data from healthy volunteers," Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 20, pp. 1228-1231, 2005.

D. J. Kohlerschmidt, L. A. Mingle, N. B. Dumas, and G. Nattanmai, "Identification of aerobic Gram-negative bacteria," in Practical handbook of microbiology, ed: CRC Press, 2021, pp. 59-70.

S. Hanina, C. Vivekananthan, R. Randhawa, M. Bhattacharya, P. Thomas, and A. Kavidasan, "Spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer–Review of aetiology and diagnosis," Respiratory Medicine Case Reports, vol. 15, pp. 51-53, 2015.

B. Belefquih, M. Frikh, Y. Benlahlou, A. Maleh, L. Jadid, F. Bssaibis, et al., "Diabetic Foot Infection in Morocco: Microbiological Profile," Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice, vol. 28, pp. 89-98, 2016.

D. M. Mutonga, M. W. Mureithi, N. N. Ngugi, and F. C. Otieno, "Bacterial isolation and antibiotic susceptibility from diabetic foot ulcers in Kenya using microbiological tests and comparison with RT-PCR in detection of S. aureus and MRSA," BMC research notes, vol. 12, pp. 1-6, 2019.

Y. Teng, Y. Li, J. Wang, K. Yang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, et al., "Bioengineered skin in diabetic foot ulcers," Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 12, pp. 307-315, 2010.

A. Dezfulian, M. Salehian, V. Amini, H. Dabiri, M. A. Rad, M. Aslani, et al., "Bacteriological study of diabetic foot infections in an Iranian hospital," Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, vol. 13, p. 590, 2011.

J. M. Sahuquillo‐Arce, R. Menéndez, R. Méndez, I. Amara‐Elori, R. Zalacain, A. Capelastegui, et al., "Age‐related risk factors for bacterial aetiology in community‐acquired pneumonia," Respirology, vol. 21, pp. 1472-1479, 2016.

C. Giefing‐Kröll, P. Berger, G. Lepperdinger, and B. Grubeck‐Loebenstein, "How sex and age affect immune responses, susceptibility to infections, and response to vaccination," Aging cell, vol. 14, pp. 309-321, 2015.

L. Weiner, From working girl to working mother: The female labor force in the United States, 1820-1980: UNC Press Books, 2016.

G. Pietrocola, G. Nobile, S. Rindi, and P. Speziale, "Staphylococcus aureus manipulates innate immunity through own and host-expressed proteases," Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, vol. 7, p. 166, 2017.

A. Karlsson, P. Saravia-Otten, K. Tegmark, E. Morfeldt, and S. Arvidson, "Decreased amounts of cell wall-associated protein A and fibronectin-binding proteins in Staphylococcus aureus sarA mutants due to up-regulation of extracellular proteases," Infection and immunity, vol. 69, pp. 4742-4748, 2001.







How to Cite

Screening and Isolation of Protease Producing Bacteria from Diabetic Foot Ulcers. (2024). University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, 11(1), 150-154.