A Plasmonic Photonic Crystal Fiber Sensor with Simplified Features for Identifying Unidentified Analytes


  • Hassan Yasser Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Thi-Qar
  • Mostefa Benhaliliba Film Device Fabrication-Characterization and Application FDFCA Research Group USTOMB, 31130 Oran, Algeria




plasmonic, PCF, sensitivity of sensor.


In this paper, we present a novel method for building a plasmonic photonic crystal fiber (PCF) sensor with simplified features to identify unknown analytes. Using the special parameters of plasmonic PCFs, the suggested sensor increases the sensitivity and specificity of target analyte detection. We provide a streamlined design approach that reduces manufacturing complexity without sacrificing reliable performance, opening up the sensor to new useful applications. We show the optimal structure parameters for optimizing sensitivity using the finite element method in the COMSOL environment. The suggested configuration attained strong spectral sensitivity throughout an extensive range of the analyte's refractive indices.  Furthermore, a perfect linear connection was established between the analyte's refractive index and the resonant wavelength, qualifying the sensor for usage across the whole range of the analyte's refractive indices.


V. Kaur and S. Singh, "Design approach of solid-core photonic crystal fiber sensor with sensing ring for blood component detection", Journal of Nanophotonics 13(2), 026011, 2019.

M. Salman, H. Muhammad and H. Yasser. "Effects of holes radius on plasmonic photonic crystal fiber sensor with internal gold layer", Periodicals of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Vol. 8, pp.1288-1296, 2020.

A. Talib and H. Yasser. "Maximizing spectral sensitivity of plasmonic photonic crystal fiber sensor", Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics 249, 168228, 2022.

O. Zhernovaya, O. Sydoruk, V. Tuchin and A. Douplik, “The refractive index of human hemoglobin in the visible range”, Physics in medicine and biology, 56, 4013–4021, 2011.

B. Li, T. Cheng, J. Chen, and X. Yan, "Graphene-enhanced surface plasmon resonance liquid refractive index sensor based on photonic crystal fiber," Sensors, vol. 19, p. 3666, 2019.

S. Mostufa, A. Paul and K. Chakrabarti, "Detection of hemoglobin in blood and urine glucose level samples using a graphene-coated SPR based biosensor", OSA Continuum, Vol.4, No.8, 2021.

R. Hani, B. Mahdi, and A. Mohammed, “Photonic crystal fiber sensor for blood with different concentration of zinc”, Materials Science Forum Vol.1002, 2020.

A. Bulbul, R. Jibon, S. Biswas, S. Pasha and Md. Sayeed, "Photonic crystal fiber-based blood components detection in THz regime: Design and simulation", Sensors International, Vo.l2, 100081, 2021.

E. Lazareva and V. Tuchina, “Measurement of refractive index of hemoglobin in the visible/NIR spectral range”, Journal of Biomedical Optics 23(3), 035004, 2018.

S. Maier, “Plasmonics: fundamentals and applications”, Springer Science and Business Media. 2007, ch.2-3, pp.5-35.

R. Otupiri, E. Akowuah, and S. Haxha , “Multi-channel SPR biosensor based on PCF for multi-analyte sensing applications”, Optics express 15716, 2015.

G. Igorevich, D. Petr, C. Olga, and F. Vyacheslav, and K. Mikhail, “Study of glucose concentration influence on blood optical properties in THz frequency range”, Nanosystems: physics, chemistry, mathematics, 9 (3), 2018.

M. Islam, A. Iftekher, K. Hasan, J. Nayen, S. Islam, Md. Khan, J. Chowdhury, F. Mehjabin, M. Islam, and Md. Islam, "Design and analysis of a biochemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance with ultra-high sensitivity", Plasmonics 16(9), 2021.‏

J. Lu, Y. Li, Y. Han, Y. Liu, and J. Gao, , 2018, "D-shaped photonic crystal fiber plasmonic refractive index sensor based on gold grating," Applied optics, vol. 57, pp. 5268-5272.

M. Elblbesy, “The refractive index of human blood measured at the visible spectral region by single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy”, Biophysics, 8(1): 57–65, 2020.

E. Misto, A. Supriyadi, L. Rohman, and B. Cahyono, "Analyses of concentration and wavelength dependent refractive index of sugar solution using Sellmeier equation", Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 1825, No. 1, 2021.‏

A. Belay and G. Assefa, “Concentration, wavelength and temperature dependent refractive index of sugar solutions and methods of determination contents of sugar in soft drink beverages using laser lights”, J Laser Opt Photonics 5:2, 2018.

N. Ayyanar1, P. Kuppusamy, G. Raja, D. Vigneswaran, and A. Aly, “Tricore photonic crystal fiber based refractive index sensor for glucose detection”, IET Optoelectronics 13(3), 2018.

F. Zha, J. Li, P. Sun, and H. Ma, "Highly sensitive selectively coated D-shape photonic crystal fibers for surface plasmon resonance sensing," Physics Letters A, vol. 383, pp. 1825-1830, 2019.

M. Hasan, M. Rahman, K. Ahmed and M. Rana, “Design and analysis of a highly sensitive plasmonic photonic crystal fiber biosensor”, IEEE Access, 8, 199202–199213, 2020.

F. Zhenkai, "Surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensor based on photonic crystal fiber covering nano-ring gold film", Optical Fiber Technology 50: 194-199, 2019.‏

sensor using the lower birefringence peak method", OSA Continuum. Vol.2, No.5, 2019.

G. An, S. Li, Y. An, H. Wang, and X. Zhang “Glucose sensor realized with photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac Interferometer”, Optics Communications 405, 143–146, 2017.

A. Borji, Fz. Borji, and A. Jourani. “A new method for the determination of sucrose concentration in a pure and impure system: spectrophotometric method”, International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol.2017, 2017.

A. Rakic, A. Djuris, J. Elazar, and M. Majewski, "Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices", Applied optics, Vol. 37, No. 22, 1998.‏

M. Mahfuz, Md. Hasan, M. Momota, and S. Akter, "Asymmetrical photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic refractive index sensor," Sensors, vol. 19, p. 3794, 2019.

X. Yang, Y. Lu, M. Wang and J. Yao, "A photonic crystal fiber glucose sensor filled with silver nanowires." Optics Communications 359, pp.279-284, 2016.

X. Zhang, S. Feng, J. Zhang, T. Zhai, H. Liu, and Z. Pang,"Sensors based on plasmonic photonic coupling in metallic photonic crystals," Sensors, vol. 12, pp. 12082-12097, 2012.

M. Mahfuz, M. Hossain, E. Haque, N. Hai, Y. Namihira, and F. Ahmed, "A bimetallic-coated, low propagation loss, photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic refractive index sensor," Sensors, vol. 19, p. 3794, 2019.

J. Dash and R. Jha, 2015, "On the performance of graphene-based D-shaped photonic crystal fibre biosensor using surface plasmon resonance," Plasmonics, vol. 10, pp. 1123-1131.

Y. Lu, C. Hao, B.. Wu, X. Huang, W. Wen, X. Fu, et al. "Grapefruit fiber filled with silver nanowires surface plasmon resonance sensor in aqueous environments," Sensors, vol. 12, pp. 12016-12025, 2012.

C. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Li, and Z. Liu, "Highly sensitive plasmonic photonic crystal fiber biosensor for label-free detection," Optics Express, 27(20), 28533-28544, 2019.

H. Ali, H. Ammar, and H. Yasser, "Metal type effect on plasmonic fiber properties," IOP Materials Science and Engineering 928, 2020.

K. Kolwas and A. Derkachova, "Impact of the interband transitions in gold and silver on the dynamics of propagating and localized surface plasmons," Nanomaterials, 10, 1411, 2020.

M. Dresselhaus, "Solid-state physics," Lecture Notes, Part II; Optical Properties of Solids; Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Cambridge, MA, USA, Volume 17, 2001.

G. Agrawal, “Nonlinear fiber optics”, 5th edition, Academic Press, 2012, ch.2, pp.6-7.

Y. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. Lu, S. Guo, X. Xiao, and Z. Yang, "Recent progress on plasmonic photonic crystal fiber sensors: mechanisms, materials, and applications," Sensors, 21(10), 3421, 2021.








How to Cite

A Plasmonic Photonic Crystal Fiber Sensor with Simplified Features for Identifying Unidentified Analytes. (2024). University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, 11(1), 74-82. https://doi.org/10.32792/utq/utjsci/v11i1.1176