Determination of Pollution Levels of Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals (Cobalt - Cadmium - Nickel) in The Soils of Farms Near the Southern Refineries - Basrah City - Southern Iraq
The research included studying the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and some heavy elements (cobalt - cadmium - nickel) for ten samples of which soils, the sample (S1-S8) close to the South Refinery, and two samples of soils (S9-S10) for agricultural lands far from the source of pollution represented by the South Refinery. Where they were considered as comparative samples that collected samples for the two seasons in the winter and summer of 2019, the results of the study showed that the highest average concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons was 13.21 μg / g in the S1 model in the winter season and the lowest rate was 3.96 μg / g in the S10 model in the summer season and the highest rate of concentration. Cobalt was 24.82 μg / g in the S1 a sample in the summer season, and the lowest value was 9.73 μg / g in the S10 a sample in the winter season, and the highest cadmium rate in the summer season was 1.93 μg / g in the S2 a sample and the lowest value in the S9 model, and its value was 0.10 μg / g. As for the nickel element, the highest rate was in the S1 model and it was 26.88 μg / g in the summer season and the lowest value was 13.10 μg / g in the S9 model in the winter season. It was concluded from the current study that the total hydrocarbon values are high in the soils of farms close to the source of pollution represented by the South Refinery and their decrease in soils of comparison farms far from the source of pollution, as well as heavy metals (cobalt, cadmium and nickel )we notice that their values have increased, but they did not exceed the maximum permissible limits, and this indicates the effect of the refinery pollutants on the soils of nearby agricultural lands.